In 1883, the island volcano Krakatoa erupted with a series of cataclysmic explosions; the resulting tidal waves in Indonesia's Sunda Strait claimed some 36,000 lives in Java and Sumatra.
On this date: In 1776, the Battle of Long Island began during the Revolutionary War as British troops attacked American forces who ended up being forced to retreat two days later.
In 1826, 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, former presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died. CBS newsman Charles Kuralt died in New York at age 62.
In 1831, the fifth president of the United States, James Monroe, died in New York City at age 73. Ten years ago: BBC reporter Alan Johnston, seized by the Army of Islam in the Gaza Strip the previous March, was released after 114 days in captivity. International Tennis Hall of Famer Pam Shriver is 55.
The space shuttle Enterprise, mounted atop a jumbo jet, sailed over the New York City skyline on its final flight before becoming a museum piece aboard the USS Intrepid. Rhythm-and-blues singer Herbie Murrell (The Stylistics) is 68.
In 1872, the 30th president of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, was born in Plymouth, Vermont. The head of the radical-held Red Mosque (Maulana Abdul Aziz) in Islamabad, Pakistan, was caught by security forces. Rhythm and blues singer Annette Beard (Martha and the Vandellas) is 74. Vietnam War veteran and peace activist Ron Kovic is 71.
In 1917, during a ceremony in Paris honoring the French hero of the American Revolution, U. (He was eventually released.) The Black Sea resort of Sochi was elected the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, taking the Winter Games to Russia for the first time. Rhythm-and-blues musician Ralph Johnson (Earth, Wind and Fire) is 66.
In 1986, Kurt Waldheim was inaugurated as president of Austria despite controversy over his alleged ties to Nazi war crimes. Rickover, widely regarded as father of the nuclear navy, died in Arlington, Virginia.
In 1994, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's communist leader since 1948, died at age 82. soldiers were charged with rape and murder and a fifth with dereliction of duty in the rape-slaying of a 14-year-old Iraqi girl and the killings of her family in Mahmoudiya (The soldiers received sentences ranging from five to 110 years based on their acknowledged roles in the attack.) Discovery astronauts Piers Sellers and Michael Fossum went on a 7-1/2-hour spacewalk to test a repair technique for space shuttles.